With the emergence of domain name disputes, mainly, between trademark owners and domain administrators, WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization has taking lead in the international program designed to develop specialized mechanisms for an efficient resolution of such disputes – namely, UDRP. WIPO also offers dispute settlement recommendations to administrators of ccTLDs. Coordination Center for TLD RU, as a national registry, contacts the WIPO in order to get advice on development of the domain disputes resolution policy for the Russian national TLD domains.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web. Founded in 1994 and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations that maintain full-time staff working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web. W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.
W3C's primary activity is to develop protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web. W3C's standards define key parts of what makes the World Wide Web work.
The Internet Society was formed in 1992 by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, two of the “Fathers of the Internet”. The Internet Society’s history and values reflect this founding lineage. Among its leadership and membership one can find many of the Internet’s technical pioneers, innovators, and global connectors. Its mission—to promote the open development, evolution, and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world—mirrors the guiding principles that gave rise to and enabled the propagation of our era’s defining technology.
For more than 25 years, the Internet Society has also played an important role in informing and creating the history of the Internet. The Internet Society’s foundational pillars have found expression in initiatives that have helped to connect the world, supported the development of fundamental Internet technology, and promoted transparency and a multistakeholder, bottom-up approach in addressing global Internet governance issues.
IThe IETF is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. The technical work of the IETF is done in Working Groups, which are organized by topic into several Areas. Much of the work is handled via mailing lists. The IETF holds meetings three times per year.
The IETF working groups are grouped into areas, and managed by Area Directors, or ADs. The ADs are members of the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Providing architectural oversight is the Internet Architecture Board, (IAB). The IAB also adjudicates appeals when someone complains that the IESG has failed. The IAB and IESG are chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) for these purposes. The General Area Director also serves as the chair of the IESG and of the IETF, and is an ex-officio member of the IAB. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols.
APTLD (Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association) – the association of national registries in Asia. Russia is a vast country, which stretches through two continents, Europe and Asia. It is crucial for the Russian Internet community to follow all processes that take place in the Internet and in various Internet registries. That is why CC for TLD RU is a member of not only CENTR, but of APTLD as well. APTLD operates as a forum facilitating exchange of information on technological and operations issues pertaining to domain names registration. APTLD represents interests of ccTLD registries of the region in international organizations that coordinate the use and development of the Internet, as well as in the global Internet policy development process.
RIPE NCC (Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Centre) – one of 5 Regional Internet Registries (RIR) operating under the governance of ASO ICANN (ICANN Address Supporting Organization on allocation of IP-addresses). RIPE NCC services Local Internet Registries (LIR) in Europe, Middle East and Central Asia to ensure a fair allocation of Internet address resources in the region serviced. RIPE community consists mainly of Internet service providers, telecommunications companies and large corporations of the region. Euro-Asian Network Operators Group (ENOG) was formed in 2010 with the support of Coordination Centre for TLD RU and RIPE NCC. Annual joint ENOG / RIPE regional meetings are held in Moscow since 2011.
IGF (Internet Governance Forum). In 2006 it replaced the previously existing Working Group on Internet Governance. IGF is run by Secretariat, whose responsibilities include both the annual global forum and support of regional and national IGF forums worldwide. Main IGF objectives are: “address government policy issue regarding key elements of Internet governance in order to assist to the robustness, safety, stability and development of the Internet and assist dialogue between bodies engaged in tackling cross-cutting issues of global Internet-related government policy.” Coordination Center for TLD RU is proactive in the annual IGF annual forums. It has become an organizer to the Russian Internet Governance Forum from 2010.
ITU (International Telecommunication Union) – an international organization, which determines standards in telecommunications. This is one of the oldest international organizations. It was founded in Paris as far back as on 17 May 1865 under the name International Telegraph Union. In 1934, ITU was given its present name, and in 1947 became a UN specialized agency. ITU standards are not mandatory, but widely supported so as to facilitate interaction between communications networks and enable service providers to deliver services worldwide. ITU is engaged in distribution of radio frequencies, launch of international telephone and radio communications, standardization of telecommunications equipment. The purpose of ITU is to promote and enhance international cooperation in the regional use of all forms of communications, improving technical means and their efficient operation.
CENTR (Council of European National TLD Registries) – the association of country code top level domains registries in Europe. CENTR plays an important role in representing the interests of European ccTLD registries at the global level. CC for TLD RU participates in annual meetings and seminars hosted by CENTR, which develop common ground of the association members on various issues related to national registries’ operations, including those on projects submitted for discussion by such organizations as ICANN, European Commission, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and Internet Governance Forum (IGF). Many ccTLD registries have formed regional organizations. In addition to CENTR, there are Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Association (APTLD), Africa Top Level Domain Organization (AfTLD), and Latin American and Caribbean Top Level Domain Association (LACTLD). Coordination Center for TLD RU is a full member of CENTR.
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS root, IP addressing, and assignments of TLD domains (gTLD, ccTLD). IANA is a structural body of ICANN and performs functions of ICANN technical center and, in particular, runs the database of TLD domains.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is organization, which ensures stable and safe operation of unique identifiers of the Internet (domains, IP addresses) across the world. ICANN was formed in 1998. CC for TLD RU actively participates in ICANN’s meetings, which draw representatives from various groups of global Internet community and where main trends of the Internet development are crafted. In particular, these meetings deal with such issues as delegation of new TLD domains, including in national languages (IDNs), and redelegation of domains, among other. ICANN is a multi-stakeholder structure and its board involves citizens from all over the world. In particular, Andrey Kolesnikov, CC’s Director, was elected a member of GNSO Board (Generic Names Supporting Organization) in 2009. At present, work is under way to further internationalization and expand international participation in ICANN activities. Coordination Center for TLD RU as national registry is a member of ссNSO (Country Code Names Supporting Organization).